## UPLAND: Universe Expands at Speed of Light

Doppler Shift in Fourth Dimension = Differential Rate of Expansion = Gravitational Potential

**Towards a Universal Coordinate System**

The cosmic expansion concept, though strictly true, is counter intuitive, at least starting out, so it's a good idea to frequently and carefully revisit the Michelson-Morley experiment and retrace our steps. This experiment used an interferometer placed in a vat of liquid mercury for insulating it from outside vibration but also ensured that the two light beams both traveled throughout the same gravitational potential. The results proved that light travels at the same rate in any direction. This is not expected because all waves must be transmitted by something, but the world of physics tossed that assumption out and followed Einstein down the path of relativity. Be warned, "abandon all hope ye who enter there....". Instead, we look for a more rational explanation and iron out the confusion.

Rather than just saying there is no ether, it makes more sense to conclude that light is transmitted through a different dimension unaffected by any medium responsible for transmitting it. Our next clue comes from the fact that if one beam is aimed between the horizontal towards the perpendicular from Earth it will be shifted towards the red and gain in velocity, a result not seen by a local observer because of a simultaneous increase in clock speed with distance from Earth. This is explained as Einstein's "curvature" of space and time , but don't go there. The remote observer can easily see that the shift in frequency matches a Doppler shift resulting from a free fall towards the Earth at the rate of the local gravitational constant, g, as derived by Newton. In other words, if you were to fall off your ladder at 9.8 meters per second, this would produce a Doppler shift equivalent to a measurable gravitational red shift over the space of a meter. I doubt it's possible to measure this directly, but if you review the Pound-Rebka experiment you'll get a better idea. Everybody can understand a Doppler shift. If two objects are moving towards each other, waves will compress to the blue spectrum, and if moving apart the waves will stretch out and become reddish. There's no such rational explanation for a gravitational red shift so physicists don't try to explain it. We can fix that.

As Einstein himself concluded in one of his cryptic moments, gravity is caused by the Earth accelerating upwards rather than bodies falling down, but he gave no explanation of how that works for falling bodies on all sides of the globe at once. It sounds like he was verging on the cosmic expansion model but shifted directions when Friedmann came out with his own. For this to be true, Earth would have to be expanding at an accelerating rate of 9.8 meters per second. Holy Guacamole, Batman! So, putting Albert aside, we go back to the more rational idea that light is transmitted through the ether of a fourth, outside dimension. Even then, it's difficult to see how the entire velocity of light could be equal in all directions unless... it also is due to cosmic expansion.

There is only one key to the riddle. The red shift in light observed when light travels away from a source of gravity represents the difference in rates of cosmic expansion between the two points in question. We don't experience the expansion locally because length and clock speeds expand and shrink together, or you could say that if everything expands at once then universal proportions inside the box conceal the expansion that is clearly taking place when seen from an upper dimension. So, place yourself in the weightless fourth dimension and verify that this is the only workable explanation. There you see clearly how the Earth is expanding at a faster rate than you because of the expansion property of mass. You feel no effect of gravity, but because the center of Earth is receding, you measure a Doppler red shift corresponding to 9.8 meters per second equal to Newton's local gravitational constant. Thus, red and blue shifts can be accounted for nicely by differences in rates of expansion between any two points in the universe by gravitational potentials. If there is no net gravitational potential such as in the Michelson-Morley experiment, there will be no red or blue shifts seen by a remote observer and this establishes a constant velocity of light for all places in the universe where there is a zero gravitational potential; in other words, space in the fourth dimension is expanding equally at points lying on the same horizontal plane. To simply dismiss the question by saying there is no ether isn't quite enough, and if you say Einstein fixed it with relativity only works if you're pursuing a career in physics.

Why is the baseline speed of light is what it is and how could it be the same in all directions even if transmitted through an ether in an upper dimension? For complete clarity, we must answer this question in a way that makes sense, so your mind must be purged of relativity gobbledygook. If differences in rates of expansion in a fourth dimension create a Doppler shift between bodies of different masses or gravitational potentials, then the baseline velocity of light must represent the baseline velocity of expansion everywhere in the universe. The only rational solution is that the speed of light is the result of physical expansion of space in all directions from all points of the universe. The singular, inescapable conclusion is the speed of light is owed entirely to cosmic expansion. If cosmic expansion is zero then light speed is also zero and we live in darkness deprived of the passage of time. We do not experience or see gravitional and cosmic expansion but it is real and measureable from a fixed, external dimension superimposed over this one. The truth is not yet discovered because it is difficult at first to fathom, but when the light dawns, you know it.

Even more uncomfortable is the fact that uniform expansion alone could produce no gravity in the physical dimension because the force of gravity is due to acceleration. The first order of expansion accounts for the red shift, but gravity can only result from accelerating expansion. The only possible inference is that any uniform rate of expansion cannot be knowable, only that the expansion accelerates at the speed of light. That's right. Baseline cosmic expansion is actually accelerating at 299,792,458 meters per second per second. If the actual rate of universe expansion is orders of magnitude greater than the measured speed of light boggles the mind, be reminded that neither space or time in the upper dimension have any meaning for us since they are constrained together in the lower physical dimension.

This truth matches the physicists' published with awe statements that all points are at the center of cosmic expansion. So where do they get the paltry estimates of cosmic expansion published with such pride? It's distracting to dig too deeply into dogmas entrenched in false premises, but since the popular conception of cosmic expansion is erroneously pegged to recessional velocity in physical space measured using brightness of distant galaxies, we can be fairly sure the error lies in the failure of physicists to understand what cosmic expansion is. Cosmic expansion causes red shift but does not affect measureable distances between galaxies. Since the expansion is real, however, it would definitely affect G, the universal gravitational constant. As the universe expands cosmically, its true density diminishes in the physical plane and the average force of gravity will diminish accordingly. As a secondary result, celestial bodies will indeed drift apart.

Ponder that there are no clocks in the fourth dimension where expansion might be felt. In the physical dimension clock speed is never constant but changes throughout widely variable gravitational potentials. The age of the universe is pegged around 14 billion years, but never do you hear which clock they are using. Clock speeds must also have increased dramatically over billions of years. At the beginning of the Big Bang clocks were barely moving relative to what they were a short time later and the speed of light was very slow (for remote observers ony). Every different color seen in the CMB confirms that clock speeds started out different at every point in the universe. It's an empty statement to peg the age of the universe when no two clocks could ever agree and whose speed started out as zero. The best we can do is recognize the speed of light as the recessional velocity between our local position and the nearest thing to empty space in our vicinity. That of course is not the real rate of cosmic expansion because expansion has been accelerating for a very long time. Like the familiar red shift between celestial bodies, the velocity of light is only the instantaneous difference in expansion between two points with the special condition being ourselves one point and the other being the fixed ethereal dimension past the boundary of "space time." Nevertheless, the velocity of light should be constant throughout the physical universe and not being infinite, it isn't difficult for a good mathematician to use the velocity of light to calculate the total mass of the universe.

Externally, of course, the universe has always been accelerating. We know for sure now that the universe had a beginning. In the beginning, a ball of unknown energy was flung into darkness and gradually condensed into atoms and suns and planets. You could say that the universe has a fourth dimension where the property of matter to expand space is manifested. Within that weightless dimension all points are moving away from each other at an accelerated rate but those with the highest masses are moving the fastest. This results in a Doppler red shift in light depending on the recessional velocity between them. This shift is reflected back into the physical dimension where it is interpreted as a gravitational red shift. In the physical dimension the expansion is muffled by the constraints of time and space and instead manifests as gravitational force. Since the lower half of the sandwich is nested within the fixed ethereal dimension, it isn't right to cast them as two halves of the same loaf. The ethereal dimension is the mother realm, and a great deal is going on there, but all we want to concern ourselves with now is that the physical universe has an invisible side where space is expanding at the same rate gravitation is pulling on the other side. A Doppler shift from recession in the upper realm reflects back a gravitational red shift to the physical side where the hitch between time and space harness the strength from expansion and squeeze it into the physical force of gravity. This is not just fancy talk, the key fits and no other can do.

While it is convenient to illustrate these dimensions with separate areas on paper, they are just like the expansion of space itself. They are there, but every point in the universe is both the origin of the universe, the center of expansion, the boundary of the universe and the fourth dimension, superimposed at every point. It's the real thing the analogy of Flatland was meant to convey. There really is an UP, but in the 3D dimension there is another UP which is a different kind of up, and an UPLAND which will be your new home after you reach the end of the tunnel. You could say that for you the end will end up being only the beginning of real life in UPLAND, a place far beyond the imagination of mortal souls.