## The E=mc^2 Fraud and Solution to the Entropy Paradox

In some places prior to late April 2022, I may have explained how G would vary as light speed varied more or less through greater or lesser mass densities. I'm terribly embarrassed about this error, because G is for all purposes the product of light speed and the inverse of mass density where light speed is a function of mass density. Any gain in light speed in the formula for G would be offset by the equivalent increase in mass density, and therefore G cannot vary under ANY circumstances. Please overlook this minor blooper. I only began work in earnest on the cosmic expansion model a few months ago. The mistake has no bearing on that and it's actually a relief to note that G is constructed so that it cannot vary under any circumstances, most importantly those that could have allowed a Big Bang to occur at any time or for the internal measurements of the universe to be anything but fixed at a constant radius R, mass M, and the acceleration of light required to sustain the force of gravity.

So, I've shown clearly how the Einstein credit for Pound Rebka is an obvious scientific fraud without rational defense. This makes it easier to spot other fraudulent claims of Einstein's such as E=mc^2. In every case one of Newton's formulas is plagiarized and the meaning extended to falsely claim credit for a new discovery. The E=mc squared swindle isn't as blatant as the Pound-Rebka case, but we can be confident that the formula was hijacked and that a more scientifically valid explanation for a new phenomena can be found than the one offered by Einstein.

Of course, for E=mc^2, this is primarily the phony mass / energy conversion idea which is the basis of Einstein's popular fame. The idea is that the merging of two hydrogen nuclei releases energy from the conversion of mass, the exception to the formerly immutable law of conservation of mass and energy that marks Einstein as the greatest scientific mind of all time. The claim is backed up by a bastardized version of the standard chemical reaction formula where the loss of mass as a reactant is indicated with as the equivalent gain in energy as a product. There is, of course, no way to measure the alleged loss of mass nor any atomic reaction where the restoration of mass can be demonstrated because the claim is fake science in the light of day.

Einstein's claims and ongoing references to them are also fraud by definition. The classic law of conservation of energy and mass could not be violated as any sensible person can see. No need to remind me, of course, it is necessary to account for the energy released by such nuclear transactions and I will do that. I'm shooting from the hip here because I know little to nothing about the science of nuclear energy other than what can be rightly inferred from the proven cosmic expansion model, acknowledged by anyone or not. First, let's examine how E=mc^2 where the formula was hijacked from. We start with the formula for Newton's potential energy, PE=mgh, which we've already seen was used by Pound-Rebka after ditching Einstein's formula to prove the fractional reduction in clock speed over distance h, or for any change in velocity as PE=mv^2. We showed how this translates into the differential rates of expansion between any two points over distance h. If potential energy PE is transformed into real energy by an inelastic impact, the formula becomes Newton's famous kinetic energy formula, KE = mv^2.

We showed that the change in velocity over distance h is equivalent to the rate of expansion near Earth's surface of 9.8 meters per second per second. We proved conclusively that the surface gravitational potential of any body of mass is equivalent to its rate of expansion, specifically the product of its mass and the square of the velocity of expansion, again, PE=mv^2, AND that the rate of expansion, v, is precisely equal to the fractional change in velocity of light over the distance h offset by the same fractional change in the length of a meter. Therefore, since gravitational potential is proportional to mass, the gravitational potential near the surface of the universe, PE, must be equal to M, total mass of the universe, times c^2. This, and only this, is the meaning of this special case of Newton's formula for PE or KE. The fractional change in light velocity at the surface of the universe could only be the entire range of light velocity. Einstein's E=mc^2 represents only the potential energy PE at the outer surface of the universe or the kinetic energy KE of a falling body, NOT the energy released by the conversion of mass.

I do NOT pretend to have knowledge of the body of science attributing nuclear reactions to mass energy conversions or that it would be an advantage. My job requires tracing the energy dynamics involved in the creation of atoms as they originate from cosmic expansion. To start with, we need only rely on the foundation of solid proof for the inner expansion of matter as the cause of the equal and opposite force of gravity. It is now an established fact by Foos by mathematical proof, however unacknowledged, that accelerating internal expansion is the fundamental property of matter, that it is precisely matched by the equal and opposite force of gravity by Newton's Third Law. It necessarily follows that cosmic expansion exerts the most powerful reactive forces on the smallest scales where the greatest mass densities and shortest distances are found.

We have already PROOF of this. The rate of spatial expansion on the nuclear level would by definition result in the most powerful binding energy in atoms. It is of little doubt that the proton and neutron are those particles with greatest mass density. No doubts can be entertained that the binding force of atomic nuclei is cosmic expansion as it is for gravity. The force of micro expansion would far greater than that of macro gravity by virtue of the extreme density of a proton and the tiny radius of an atomic nucleus. Larger atomic weights would become unstable, of course, because mass density must diminish as greater numbers of protons and neutrons vie for the same space.

There is no argument against the construction of atoms taking place in stars where the rate of expansion and opposite force of gravity result in intense pressure. If the kinetics of macro gravity seem weak, consider that the kinetics of micro expansion would be extraordinarily more intense. They involve mass densities millions of times greater than porous matter over ranges millions of times smaller. It would be impossible to deny that internal expansion on the atomic level is solely responsible for binding forces between atomic particles. As a planet traps more mass and begins to boil over from the heat produced by kinetic collisions, protons are brought closer together until the force of micro expansion results in their capture. Atoms are built piece by piece from the capture of additional protons and neutrons under the increasingly intense pressure of internally expanding mass. Once these material are released from a supernova, the intense packing energies of captured particles inside the nucleus remain by virtue of ongoing internal expansion. If any protons or neutrons are by any means dislodged from their tiny orbits, enormous quantities of energy will follow. The energy so released has NOTHING to do the loss of mass but only the short range binding energy from internal expansion that prevented it from escaping its tiny orbit. Obviously, the energy attributed to fusion is misleading because fusion by itself could release no energy. It could only be the release of other particles in a fusion process that frees the energy of expansion holding them captive. That being said, there is no need to further entertain the misplaced notion that the energy released from atomic nuclei has anything to do with a loss of mass or that the formula E=mc^2 represents any such thing. This is pure and simple plagiarism and fraudulent science.

An incidental significance of atom construction should be the second most important scientific discovery after the cause of gravity. It is well established that the dynamics of all physical and chemical actions and reactions require a net loss of energy which forbids the operation of a "perpetual motion" machine made possible by restoring the loss. However, the fundamental property of matter being expansion is itself the perfect perpetual motion, the only perpetual motion to ever be seen, which restores order to the universe by the creation of new atoms. This fills a paradoxical gap in the science of thermodynamics because if every action or reaction results in an increase in the entropy of the universe, we yet have no answer for how order came to be in the first place. The Big Bangers stoke us up to imagine that the universe began with perfect order at the moment of the Big Bang, and, as the raisins dissolve into nothingness, maximum disorder and universal death inevitably result. But the absence of entropy cannot possibly be compatible with the high temperatures of the Big Bang where the most extreme temperatures represent the greatest entropy. The Big Bang begins with maximum disorder and is therefore at impossible odds with the second law. No model of the universe can be correct unless it provides a mechanism for negative entropy, the restoration of order. This is only satisfied by the perpetual motion of accelerating cosmic expansion.

Clearly, the forces of internal cosmic expansion are the power that drives the cosmos, and this means that the creation of atomic nuclei is the primary negative entropy event, the restoring of order which is followed by increased entropy in every secondary chemical or physical action. The Second Law of Thermodynamics has to be amended to state that all physical and chemical actions increase the entropy of the universe except for the creation of matter in stars through the force of internal expansion. This is the sole transaction of energy that restores order to the universe, the perpetual motion machine of cosmic expansion.

The materials formed in stars are eventually liberated by a supernova. They are nearing their expiration dates by the time they come together to make a human body. The steady state Cosmic Expansion Model of the Universe, which is FACT, not theory, requires that the raw materials of subatomic particles are continually reassembled. But how are they broken down? This should be no mystery. Matter is eventually trapped by the furious expansion of black holes where it is broken down into its fundamental parts and redistributed by those powerful jets our cosmologists gleefully observe.

At about age nine I was killing time in the waiting room of a dentist by reading an Issue of Humpty Dumpty Magazine. It had an article telling how to make a self starting siphon by bending a small tube of glass. The surface tension of water carries it up as far as the bend, then gravity pulls it over the top of a beaker. I later raised my hand in physics class and stated to the professor that I could make a self starting siphon. He laughed and said that would be impossible. A perpetual motion machine, the dreams of fools. I said, ok, then left to the lab for a few minutes and made one. I then demonstrated it in class. He objected, saying it wasn't fair because I'd made a second bend upwards that made the water bounce. I'd anticipated his attempt to squirm out of it, and pulled out another without the bend. It wasn't a very nice joke, I guess, but indeed, it turns out that gravity itself is in fact a perpetual motion machine.

**The E=mc^2 FRAUD**So, I've shown clearly how the Einstein credit for Pound Rebka is an obvious scientific fraud without rational defense. This makes it easier to spot other fraudulent claims of Einstein's such as E=mc^2. In every case one of Newton's formulas is plagiarized and the meaning extended to falsely claim credit for a new discovery. The E=mc squared swindle isn't as blatant as the Pound-Rebka case, but we can be confident that the formula was hijacked and that a more scientifically valid explanation for a new phenomena can be found than the one offered by Einstein.

Of course, for E=mc^2, this is primarily the phony mass / energy conversion idea which is the basis of Einstein's popular fame. The idea is that the merging of two hydrogen nuclei releases energy from the conversion of mass, the exception to the formerly immutable law of conservation of mass and energy that marks Einstein as the greatest scientific mind of all time. The claim is backed up by a bastardized version of the standard chemical reaction formula where the loss of mass as a reactant is indicated with as the equivalent gain in energy as a product. There is, of course, no way to measure the alleged loss of mass nor any atomic reaction where the restoration of mass can be demonstrated because the claim is fake science in the light of day.

Einstein's claims and ongoing references to them are also fraud by definition. The classic law of conservation of energy and mass could not be violated as any sensible person can see. No need to remind me, of course, it is necessary to account for the energy released by such nuclear transactions and I will do that. I'm shooting from the hip here because I know little to nothing about the science of nuclear energy other than what can be rightly inferred from the proven cosmic expansion model, acknowledged by anyone or not. First, let's examine how E=mc^2 where the formula was hijacked from. We start with the formula for Newton's potential energy, PE=mgh, which we've already seen was used by Pound-Rebka after ditching Einstein's formula to prove the fractional reduction in clock speed over distance h, or for any change in velocity as PE=mv^2. We showed how this translates into the differential rates of expansion between any two points over distance h. If potential energy PE is transformed into real energy by an inelastic impact, the formula becomes Newton's famous kinetic energy formula, KE = mv^2.

We showed that the change in velocity over distance h is equivalent to the rate of expansion near Earth's surface of 9.8 meters per second per second. We proved conclusively that the surface gravitational potential of any body of mass is equivalent to its rate of expansion, specifically the product of its mass and the square of the velocity of expansion, again, PE=mv^2, AND that the rate of expansion, v, is precisely equal to the fractional change in velocity of light over the distance h offset by the same fractional change in the length of a meter. Therefore, since gravitational potential is proportional to mass, the gravitational potential near the surface of the universe, PE, must be equal to M, total mass of the universe, times c^2. This, and only this, is the meaning of this special case of Newton's formula for PE or KE. The fractional change in light velocity at the surface of the universe could only be the entire range of light velocity. Einstein's E=mc^2 represents only the potential energy PE at the outer surface of the universe or the kinetic energy KE of a falling body, NOT the energy released by the conversion of mass.

I do NOT pretend to have knowledge of the body of science attributing nuclear reactions to mass energy conversions or that it would be an advantage. My job requires tracing the energy dynamics involved in the creation of atoms as they originate from cosmic expansion. To start with, we need only rely on the foundation of solid proof for the inner expansion of matter as the cause of the equal and opposite force of gravity. It is now an established fact by Foos by mathematical proof, however unacknowledged, that accelerating internal expansion is the fundamental property of matter, that it is precisely matched by the equal and opposite force of gravity by Newton's Third Law. It necessarily follows that cosmic expansion exerts the most powerful reactive forces on the smallest scales where the greatest mass densities and shortest distances are found.

We have already PROOF of this. The rate of spatial expansion on the nuclear level would by definition result in the most powerful binding energy in atoms. It is of little doubt that the proton and neutron are those particles with greatest mass density. No doubts can be entertained that the binding force of atomic nuclei is cosmic expansion as it is for gravity. The force of micro expansion would far greater than that of macro gravity by virtue of the extreme density of a proton and the tiny radius of an atomic nucleus. Larger atomic weights would become unstable, of course, because mass density must diminish as greater numbers of protons and neutrons vie for the same space.

There is no argument against the construction of atoms taking place in stars where the rate of expansion and opposite force of gravity result in intense pressure. If the kinetics of macro gravity seem weak, consider that the kinetics of micro expansion would be extraordinarily more intense. They involve mass densities millions of times greater than porous matter over ranges millions of times smaller. It would be impossible to deny that internal expansion on the atomic level is solely responsible for binding forces between atomic particles. As a planet traps more mass and begins to boil over from the heat produced by kinetic collisions, protons are brought closer together until the force of micro expansion results in their capture. Atoms are built piece by piece from the capture of additional protons and neutrons under the increasingly intense pressure of internally expanding mass. Once these material are released from a supernova, the intense packing energies of captured particles inside the nucleus remain by virtue of ongoing internal expansion. If any protons or neutrons are by any means dislodged from their tiny orbits, enormous quantities of energy will follow. The energy so released has NOTHING to do the loss of mass but only the short range binding energy from internal expansion that prevented it from escaping its tiny orbit. Obviously, the energy attributed to fusion is misleading because fusion by itself could release no energy. It could only be the release of other particles in a fusion process that frees the energy of expansion holding them captive. That being said, there is no need to further entertain the misplaced notion that the energy released from atomic nuclei has anything to do with a loss of mass or that the formula E=mc^2 represents any such thing. This is pure and simple plagiarism and fraudulent science.

**Solution to the Entropy Paradox - Revising The Second Law**An incidental significance of atom construction should be the second most important scientific discovery after the cause of gravity. It is well established that the dynamics of all physical and chemical actions and reactions require a net loss of energy which forbids the operation of a "perpetual motion" machine made possible by restoring the loss. However, the fundamental property of matter being expansion is itself the perfect perpetual motion, the only perpetual motion to ever be seen, which restores order to the universe by the creation of new atoms. This fills a paradoxical gap in the science of thermodynamics because if every action or reaction results in an increase in the entropy of the universe, we yet have no answer for how order came to be in the first place. The Big Bangers stoke us up to imagine that the universe began with perfect order at the moment of the Big Bang, and, as the raisins dissolve into nothingness, maximum disorder and universal death inevitably result. But the absence of entropy cannot possibly be compatible with the high temperatures of the Big Bang where the most extreme temperatures represent the greatest entropy. The Big Bang begins with maximum disorder and is therefore at impossible odds with the second law. No model of the universe can be correct unless it provides a mechanism for negative entropy, the restoration of order. This is only satisfied by the perpetual motion of accelerating cosmic expansion.

Clearly, the forces of internal cosmic expansion are the power that drives the cosmos, and this means that the creation of atomic nuclei is the primary negative entropy event, the restoring of order which is followed by increased entropy in every secondary chemical or physical action. The Second Law of Thermodynamics has to be amended to state that all physical and chemical actions increase the entropy of the universe except for the creation of matter in stars through the force of internal expansion. This is the sole transaction of energy that restores order to the universe, the perpetual motion machine of cosmic expansion.

**How Atoms Are Recycled**The materials formed in stars are eventually liberated by a supernova. They are nearing their expiration dates by the time they come together to make a human body. The steady state Cosmic Expansion Model of the Universe, which is FACT, not theory, requires that the raw materials of subatomic particles are continually reassembled. But how are they broken down? This should be no mystery. Matter is eventually trapped by the furious expansion of black holes where it is broken down into its fundamental parts and redistributed by those powerful jets our cosmologists gleefully observe.

**Humpty Dumpty Falls Perpetually**At about age nine I was killing time in the waiting room of a dentist by reading an Issue of Humpty Dumpty Magazine. It had an article telling how to make a self starting siphon by bending a small tube of glass. The surface tension of water carries it up as far as the bend, then gravity pulls it over the top of a beaker. I later raised my hand in physics class and stated to the professor that I could make a self starting siphon. He laughed and said that would be impossible. A perpetual motion machine, the dreams of fools. I said, ok, then left to the lab for a few minutes and made one. I then demonstrated it in class. He objected, saying it wasn't fair because I'd made a second bend upwards that made the water bounce. I'd anticipated his attempt to squirm out of it, and pulled out another without the bend. It wasn't a very nice joke, I guess, but indeed, it turns out that gravity itself is in fact a perpetual motion machine.