## Graphical Proof Cause of Gravity is Cosmic Expansion

by Alan Foos, MS Soils-Chemistry, email

September 2020

This chapter uses the simple graph below to aid understanding of the relation between gravity, length, clock rate and cosmic redshift. All of these physical relations are known facts of modern physics though not well explored. The two fundamental behaviors of clock speed and length are demonstrated in precise, mathematical terms in the chapter on how dimensions change in gravity. Satisfy yourself that these things are true if you can’t find adequate references. Study of this is stringy recommended. No complex formulas are needed. I use exaggerated scales to convey the point but no real life examples because the effects are invisible on the local level. Graphs and illustrations help visualize what happens to units of distance and time in gravitational fields or in an early universe that may have been more or less dense. By contemplating these relationships you will better grasp the operation of gravity and the nature of the upper, cosmic dimension. The Big Bang dogma has become the tool for exciting the masses and bringing in tax dollars. Ignoring the Cosmic Expansion Model will pose a serious lack of confidence in government once people start catching on that they’ve been lied to. Eventually, the powers that be will be forced to revise concepts of the universe, reinvent physics and redirect cosmology studies to conform with the Cosmic Expansion Model.

The graph illustrates the facts in the derivation of clock speed and length in the chapter on Einstein's dimensions. These changes are NOT observed or experienced locally, but inferred from the results of "remote" observers as Einstein called them. Note how the force of gravity diminishes with the inverse square of distance from a body of mass as described in Newton's laws. The red line shows what a remote observer should see over that same distance. It might surprise you that length and clock speed are not curvilinear like the force of gravity, but increase linearly with distance. When approaching a black hole, cosmic, not local, units of length will shrink (to a singularity) inside a black hole. The net effect is that measurements by local observers along the way are fixed. There are no changes in length or clock speed. Everything along the green line measures the same locally. Note that if you were to enter a black hole you might die from the force of gravity, but you would not shrink to a singularity as the physicists say. You could still take your dog for a walk in the park if gravity permits. Are they lying? That appears to be the case. Attributing clock speed or length to uniform velocity seems to be way the truth of fixed local dimensions has been obscured. Clock speed and length decrease with lower gravitational potentials or with acceleration / deceleration only. Seen by remote observers, the velocity of light and wavelength (blue shift) decrease as light descends through lower gravitational potentials. These are facts well established, but likely unfamiliar, so fix them firmly in mind. They are essential to understanding how dimensions are not affected by gravity on the local level while occurring in the upper, cosmic dimension in the absence of gravity.

If we scale the size of a sphere such that everything insides it scales with it, it is a geometric principle that no one inside the sphere can perceive what is outside, but observers in a dimension without mass will see and accurately measure those changes. This is the right way to explain the results of experiments used to validate Einstein's relativity in the public mind. It validates nothing about Einstein or relativity, only that gravity enforces fixed dimensions as if they were contained in a box and unable to see outside. Fortunately, red shift data gives us a clear idea of what’s going on up there.

Apparently, no person has found a cause of gravity and lived to tell about it. Einstein attempted to explain it with fish nets, steel balls, rubber mats and terms like space-time and relativity that have no physical meaning except to those trying to appear smart. We observe accelerating light emitted from a large body of mass like Jupiter that is red shifted, and someone on Jupiter sees a blue shift of light from Earth slowing down as it approaches. Have you ever been told that a Doppler equation matching the frequency change will give you the acceleration of gravity over the same interval? It’s a curious omission in classrooms because it proves that both clock speeds and length remain fixed for local observers while both change by the reckoning of remote observers.

The Michelson-Morley experiment proved that there is no physical ether to transmit light, a result that set the world of physics on fire. Going by that result, no frequency shift to the red should be observed from fixed, remote bodies, even given a gravitational potential difference. The only possible explanation is that light having no mass travels through an outer dimension where these same bodies of mass are not fixed but receding due to expansion. The magnitude of this shift like the shifts observed from light escaping “fixed” bodies like Earth matches the gravitational potential between objects, and therefore is a reliable measure of the rate of recession due to expansion between them. On the cosmic level, velocity of light C accumulates as the square of C, so far off galaxies are likely to emit red light shifted enough to give recessional velocities greater than the speed of light, c, even though relative distances are fixed on the physical level. This article highlights the biggest blunder of all: https://bit.ly/3e0XKFe

Or, we could get down to business and rightly conclude that light is transmitted through an upper, outer dimension where it encounters the same objects receding from each other and relays the changes back to observers. This can only mean an outer dimension that the physical universe is expanding into. If Doppler effect reflects differences in the rate of expansion between objects, then baseline velocity of light can only be represent by the rate of universal expansion. Cosmic red shift etches indelibly on the cosmic boundary that both light and bodies of mass are expanding into an upper dimension. The Michelson-Morley result tells us that light is not transmitted. That’s because it is propagated by cosmic expansion. The rate of recession between bodies can be calculated with the Doppler equation. It will match the acceleration due to gravity in the physical dimension. Therefore, expansion in the upper dimension is responsible for the equivalent but opposite force of gravity on the physical level. This is the holy grail of physics. Don’t ask me why I’m the one to find it.

Physicists decades ago believed that there was this Big Bang of expansion that gradually slowed, but some argue now that expansion inferred from redshift is accelerating. We mathematicians know it must for gravity to exist, but that such expansion does not take place within the universe we see and know. What must be emphasized is that since cosmic expansion is the direct cause of gravity, it must have started near zero and since have been accelerating all along. We measure only the instantaneous change in velocity as c. What we mathematicians know and the physicists don't is that the red shift is proof that there never was a Big Bang because light doesn’t travel in the physical dimension. They've talked themselves into believing progressive intergalactic redshift is due to recessional velocity based on correlating it with distance when in fact it is due to the differential rate of cosmic expansion C. Big C is the accumulated rate of accelerating expansion over billions of years, and so redshift will be much greater than our measure of c. This gives the elapsed degree of expansion in the ethereal dimension and potentially the exact age of the universe, but the curve of expansion is asymptotic so it is quite likely the universe had no beginning and will have no end.

It is difficult at first to catch the subtle implications of the Cosmic Expansion Model because everything we’ve been taught denies it. Physicists often argue that all points are the center of expansion, but expansion does not take place inside the “box.” All points also contain the boundary between upper and lower dimensions. It may not be easy to make such mistakes, but it’s nigh impossible to admit to them. There simply never was a Big Bang. If the universe does have an age, it was because it came into being with a whimper, not a bang.

This immense fallacy is the foundation of relativistic physics and modern cosmology. Even Hubbell staunchly resisted his data being interpreted as recessional velocity until like Einstein he folded and went along with the Big Bangers. The obvious never seems to have dawned on them, that there are two opposing dimensions, the upper without mass into which space is expanding at the speed of light accelerated and the force of that expansion redirected to the lower dimension as the opposing equivalent force of gravity. Say it again: the fundamental property of matter is cosmic expansion.

Cosmic expansion is only visible as such in a separate, upper dimension that our physical universe is nested within. Expansion in the lower dimension is manifested as the equal and opposite force of gravity. Relative rates of cosmic expansion determine the corresponding acceleration due to gravity in the lower dimension. These rates can be determined by use of the Doppler equations. It is an established fact that light accelerates away from a body of mass, say a laser pointed at the moon, and it is also red shifted. This results from the expansion of space that carries light with it in the upper dimension. A beam shot from the moon to Earth, however, will be shifted towards the blue because it travels “upstream” against the Earth’s expansion. Physicists try to explain this with Einstein’s relativity, but velocity and frequency of light depend on the differential rates of expansion between two bodies or points in space. Expansion assists the velocity of light when leaving Earth but resists it during approach. There is no other model of reality that fits these observations; therefore relativity and the standard model must be replaced by the Cosmic Expansion Model. Light itself has no motion and is not transmitted. It is simply carried forth by expansion in the ether dimension. Likewise, the total or baseline velocity of light is equal to the rate of expansion of the universe as a whole. This differential rate of expansion outside the physical domain also accounts for the redshift of remote galaxies which are, contrary to cosmology, fixed relative to each other on average. Light must accelerate every second to produce the force of gravity in the universe below it. Observed "gravitational" red shifts match the observed acceleration of falling objects due to force of gravity on the physical level, and that matches the very rate of Earth’s expansion viewed from the upper dimension.

This perfect solution to all results of experiments used to elevate Einstein is what he apparently didn't understand, that cosmic expansion in an upper dimension is reciprocated by the force of gravity in the fixed, lower physical dimension where humans make observations. The fundamental property of matter is expansion into the ethereal dimension with the equal and opposite reaction of gravity in the physical dimension. This is the cause of much confusion in physics and cosmology because it isn’t understood. Different rates of expansion proportional to different amounts of mass result in Doppler shifts in the outer dimension which are seen in the fixed, physical universe as gravitational effects from unknown causes. The Cosmic Expansion Model describes a geometry between dimensions expected from Newton’s third law of equal and opposite action and Newton’s universal law of gravity. The baseline velocity of light then can be nothing other than the rate of universal expansion. The results of the Michelson-Morley experiment that showed light travels at the same rate in all directions means that c is propagated by cosmic expansion on both the physical and cosmic levels. That means the universe expands at the instantaneous rate c on the physical level of fixed coordinates and at C in the cosmic level as it expands at an accelerating rate. Relativity contributes nothing to this model of the universe.

We see that free expansion of space propagates light through an ether dimension absent of mass but through which objects of mass fixed in position in the physical universe are expanding into. Physicists call this phenomenon gravitational redshift because the expansion isn’t explainable inside the physical box. Expansion is what keeps celestial bodies in motion, determines the rate of time, length of meter sticks, and flow of entropy. Since time and distance are frozen for local observers, these changes are not observed. Instead, the accelerating rate of expansion in the ethereal dimension forces the equivalent

reaction of gravity. This is the geometry and behavior of a nested physical dimension that resists expansion by the action of gravity.

Being trapped within the physical dimension, we cannot know the true volume V of the cosmic universe or the accumulated speed of light C in the ethereal realm, but the redshift from the most remote galaxy can be input into the Doppler equation to give the current rate of expansion and value of C relative to it. The universe is like a giant bubble floating in a fixed, infinite master dimension which freely permits accelerated expansion into it but at the price of restrained dimensions in the lower universe. As crazy as it might sound to fresh ears, I stake my life on all this being as rational and true as it is unknown to science. This is the foundation of a revolutionary and correct physics. It's my holy moly perpetual motion machine, the only one anyone ever has seen!

How do we know the Big Bang could not possibly have happened? Because examining units of G prove it must be constant. G isn’t a fudge factor. It has specific meaning. The units of G are cubic length divided by mass divided by seconds squared. They never tell you what G actually represents, and Newton appeared not to know himself unless the history books lie. Its purpose is to scale the apparent attraction due to gravity between m1 and m2 to the universal level. Length cubed could mean volume V of the universe, then divided by total mass M of the universe. Maybe I'm shooting from the hip, but right or wrong no hope is left for Einstein and the Big Bang. After a little thought, the units of G, (R^3/M) / s^2, can also be arranged as (R^2*R/M)/s^2. Let R stand for distance because it likely represents radius of the universe. R^2 cancels with the r^2 in the denominator of the gravitation law. Little r is the distance between the two objects of mass. Their ratio equals the radius of the universe to the radius of two objects. This leaves G as R/M/s^2 where M is the mass of the universe. R/s^2 is the universal acceleration of gravity based on radius R and mass M. So, the universe has the shape of a sphere with a specific mass M. As with R/r, Big M in the denominator scales the product of m1 and m2 to the universal level and at the same time cancels the mass unit on the right. The expression then reduces to F = ma, Newton’s textbook equation for force. This explains G.

Carefully verify for yourself that if either volume V or radius R are increased to allow for an expanding universe, then the universal force of gravity increases, exactly opposite of Einstein's well publicized reason for allowing G to be a variable. It was either the act of a fool or a sell out. G cannot vary in a way that permits the universe to expand. Even if Einstein were to invent his own G, which the media hints was the case, it wouldn’t make a difference. The only way the physical universe could be expanding is if mass were leaking out of it. Oh, wait, even that increases the value of G and blows the gig. Units of G describe a fixed geometric relationship on the universal level. Even if they could be varied, which they clearly cannot, the result would always defeat the purpose.

There never could have been a Big Bang. These scientists were all fools or frauds. It is the rate of cosmic expansion determined by mass M that defines geometrically exactly what the accelerating velocity of light c must be and the equal and opposite force of gravity on the physical level. This is easier to see with a diagram. It might help to visualize with recent YouTube videos under Foos Research. What is described for the first time are the laws of geometry for a three dimensional physical space enclosed by an expanding upper dimension resulting in the equal and opposite force of gravity. This is a new frontier in geometry, but in perfect agreement with Newton and the established behaviors of mass and length in gravitational potentials. The ethereal dimension is not only real, but the mother of ours. Matter expands into it such that recoil freezes expansion in the lower physical realm to create the equal and opposite retrograde motion we call gravity. The Doppler shift owed to recession from expansion in the ethereal dimension is matched by the force of gravity in the physical dimension. These are the properties of matter that create space and gravity. The world needs to chuck the Big Bang and get on board the Cosmic Expansion Model. Even if you don't respect me, I'm right. The world needs to know. The halls of cosmology need to be swept clean of the relativity hustle and replaced with the sound logic of the Cosmic Expansion Model. Proof of the Cosmic Expansion Model is appreciated as self evident. I swear by my life that it is the only correct model of the universe. It rightly explains the cause of gravity. It is not difficult for good mathematicians to see this clearly and carefully retrace the logic leading to the model. I don't know why nobody ever caught on. We've all been too brainwashed with Big Bang politics dramatized by fancy talkers in flashy suits.

G is analyzed in a separate chapter, so please read the entire book. Einstein, who must have known better, admitted that "he" made a mistake about making G a constant, even as it was never Einstein's G but Newton's. Well, I’ve not read Einstein’s explanation. Maybe his G was different, as if the universe changes its behavior to match the words of Einstein. At least that’s what the physicists think. But it won’t fly. G stands for real quantities on the scale of the total physical universe, not the enormously expanded cosmic universe we can’t see, but this side of the boundary between the cosmic and physical universe. It points to a fixed radius R of the universe, mass M of the universe, and the fixed speed of light matching the rate of expansion. After canceling units, it reveals the acceleration due to universal gravity, c/s, times mass, F=M*A in universal terms. G declares a fixed, geometric ratio of radius R to mass M of the universe. As such, G adjusts the expression to fit the scale of the inherent force of gravity for the physical universe as a whole. From the units, G would have to increase if any expansion or reduction in density of the universe took place. That would increase the universal force of gravitation and thwarts the possibility of any internal expansion of the physical universe or Big Bang. Yet this was the reason Einstein gave for abandoning a constant G. The idea was that this would allow internal expansion to occur so the physicists could have their dream of the Big Bang. Ironically, expansion in the cosmic universe should be nearly zero what it is now and yet it will increase again at the speed of light in the next second.

What do you suppose they had on Einstein? Nobody could be that dumb. The dimensions of G scream testimony to God, DIRTY DEAL, DIRTY DEAL, DIRTY DEAL, but a deaf and blind world has heard them not, not eve for over a hundred years. A deliberate scam? More likely nobody could rightly deduce the correct model so relativity and the Big Bang were invented to bamboozle the masses and keep those tax dollars rolling in. Why do they cling so desperately to this recessional velocity interpretation of intergalactic redshift? But then ask yourself, who could bear having the Big Bang splash century old egg all over the face of modern science?

The Cosmic Expansion Model defines the laws of the universe within an infinite, upper dimension into which space expands at an accelerating rate matching the speed of light. This produces the equal and opposite force of gravity in the enclosed physical dimension. It's surely good that we are not aware of our own expansion in the unseen upper dimension. This is not the mental fabrication of a crackpot or an Einstein trick, but the simple truth of physical existence. We live in a static universe nested within an infinite, fixed dimension crammed with energy but no mass into which our universe is expanding at the speed of light and accelerating rapidly. The Cosmic Expansion Model if true, and it is true, is the most important discovery in world history. The few able to think rightly and grasp the truth of it will see this for themselves. That's the purpose of this book. I challenge you to carefully validate the unerring logical steps to the Cosmic Model of the Universe for yourself, then waste no time in letting others know your verdict. I'm gambling that enough good mathematicians will give testimony to having seen the light and bring awareness of the Cosmic Expansion Model of the Universe to the world.

If we scale the size of a sphere such that everything insides it scales with it, it is a geometric principle that no one inside the sphere can perceive what is outside, but observers in a dimension without mass will see and accurately measure those changes. This is the right way to explain the results of experiments used to validate Einstein's relativity in the public mind. It validates nothing about Einstein or relativity, only that gravity enforces fixed dimensions as if they were contained in a box and unable to see outside. Fortunately, red shift data gives us a clear idea of what’s going on up there.

Apparently, no person has found a cause of gravity and lived to tell about it. Einstein attempted to explain it with fish nets, steel balls, rubber mats and terms like space-time and relativity that have no physical meaning except to those trying to appear smart. We observe accelerating light emitted from a large body of mass like Jupiter that is red shifted, and someone on Jupiter sees a blue shift of light from Earth slowing down as it approaches. Have you ever been told that a Doppler equation matching the frequency change will give you the acceleration of gravity over the same interval? It’s a curious omission in classrooms because it proves that both clock speeds and length remain fixed for local observers while both change by the reckoning of remote observers.

The Michelson-Morley experiment proved that there is no physical ether to transmit light, a result that set the world of physics on fire. Going by that result, no frequency shift to the red should be observed from fixed, remote bodies, even given a gravitational potential difference. The only possible explanation is that light having no mass travels through an outer dimension where these same bodies of mass are not fixed but receding due to expansion. The magnitude of this shift like the shifts observed from light escaping “fixed” bodies like Earth matches the gravitational potential between objects, and therefore is a reliable measure of the rate of recession due to expansion between them. On the cosmic level, velocity of light C accumulates as the square of C, so far off galaxies are likely to emit red light shifted enough to give recessional velocities greater than the speed of light, c, even though relative distances are fixed on the physical level. This article highlights the biggest blunder of all: https://bit.ly/3e0XKFe

Or, we could get down to business and rightly conclude that light is transmitted through an upper, outer dimension where it encounters the same objects receding from each other and relays the changes back to observers. This can only mean an outer dimension that the physical universe is expanding into. If Doppler effect reflects differences in the rate of expansion between objects, then baseline velocity of light can only be represent by the rate of universal expansion. Cosmic red shift etches indelibly on the cosmic boundary that both light and bodies of mass are expanding into an upper dimension. The Michelson-Morley result tells us that light is not transmitted. That’s because it is propagated by cosmic expansion. The rate of recession between bodies can be calculated with the Doppler equation. It will match the acceleration due to gravity in the physical dimension. Therefore, expansion in the upper dimension is responsible for the equivalent but opposite force of gravity on the physical level. This is the holy grail of physics. Don’t ask me why I’m the one to find it.

Physicists decades ago believed that there was this Big Bang of expansion that gradually slowed, but some argue now that expansion inferred from redshift is accelerating. We mathematicians know it must for gravity to exist, but that such expansion does not take place within the universe we see and know. What must be emphasized is that since cosmic expansion is the direct cause of gravity, it must have started near zero and since have been accelerating all along. We measure only the instantaneous change in velocity as c. What we mathematicians know and the physicists don't is that the red shift is proof that there never was a Big Bang because light doesn’t travel in the physical dimension. They've talked themselves into believing progressive intergalactic redshift is due to recessional velocity based on correlating it with distance when in fact it is due to the differential rate of cosmic expansion C. Big C is the accumulated rate of accelerating expansion over billions of years, and so redshift will be much greater than our measure of c. This gives the elapsed degree of expansion in the ethereal dimension and potentially the exact age of the universe, but the curve of expansion is asymptotic so it is quite likely the universe had no beginning and will have no end.

It is difficult at first to catch the subtle implications of the Cosmic Expansion Model because everything we’ve been taught denies it. Physicists often argue that all points are the center of expansion, but expansion does not take place inside the “box.” All points also contain the boundary between upper and lower dimensions. It may not be easy to make such mistakes, but it’s nigh impossible to admit to them. There simply never was a Big Bang. If the universe does have an age, it was because it came into being with a whimper, not a bang.

This immense fallacy is the foundation of relativistic physics and modern cosmology. Even Hubbell staunchly resisted his data being interpreted as recessional velocity until like Einstein he folded and went along with the Big Bangers. The obvious never seems to have dawned on them, that there are two opposing dimensions, the upper without mass into which space is expanding at the speed of light accelerated and the force of that expansion redirected to the lower dimension as the opposing equivalent force of gravity. Say it again: the fundamental property of matter is cosmic expansion.

**EXPANSION IS A PROPERTY OF MATTER**Cosmic expansion is only visible as such in a separate, upper dimension that our physical universe is nested within. Expansion in the lower dimension is manifested as the equal and opposite force of gravity. Relative rates of cosmic expansion determine the corresponding acceleration due to gravity in the lower dimension. These rates can be determined by use of the Doppler equations. It is an established fact that light accelerates away from a body of mass, say a laser pointed at the moon, and it is also red shifted. This results from the expansion of space that carries light with it in the upper dimension. A beam shot from the moon to Earth, however, will be shifted towards the blue because it travels “upstream” against the Earth’s expansion. Physicists try to explain this with Einstein’s relativity, but velocity and frequency of light depend on the differential rates of expansion between two bodies or points in space. Expansion assists the velocity of light when leaving Earth but resists it during approach. There is no other model of reality that fits these observations; therefore relativity and the standard model must be replaced by the Cosmic Expansion Model. Light itself has no motion and is not transmitted. It is simply carried forth by expansion in the ether dimension. Likewise, the total or baseline velocity of light is equal to the rate of expansion of the universe as a whole. This differential rate of expansion outside the physical domain also accounts for the redshift of remote galaxies which are, contrary to cosmology, fixed relative to each other on average. Light must accelerate every second to produce the force of gravity in the universe below it. Observed "gravitational" red shifts match the observed acceleration of falling objects due to force of gravity on the physical level, and that matches the very rate of Earth’s expansion viewed from the upper dimension.

This perfect solution to all results of experiments used to elevate Einstein is what he apparently didn't understand, that cosmic expansion in an upper dimension is reciprocated by the force of gravity in the fixed, lower physical dimension where humans make observations. The fundamental property of matter is expansion into the ethereal dimension with the equal and opposite reaction of gravity in the physical dimension. This is the cause of much confusion in physics and cosmology because it isn’t understood. Different rates of expansion proportional to different amounts of mass result in Doppler shifts in the outer dimension which are seen in the fixed, physical universe as gravitational effects from unknown causes. The Cosmic Expansion Model describes a geometry between dimensions expected from Newton’s third law of equal and opposite action and Newton’s universal law of gravity. The baseline velocity of light then can be nothing other than the rate of universal expansion. The results of the Michelson-Morley experiment that showed light travels at the same rate in all directions means that c is propagated by cosmic expansion on both the physical and cosmic levels. That means the universe expands at the instantaneous rate c on the physical level of fixed coordinates and at C in the cosmic level as it expands at an accelerating rate. Relativity contributes nothing to this model of the universe.

We see that free expansion of space propagates light through an ether dimension absent of mass but through which objects of mass fixed in position in the physical universe are expanding into. Physicists call this phenomenon gravitational redshift because the expansion isn’t explainable inside the physical box. Expansion is what keeps celestial bodies in motion, determines the rate of time, length of meter sticks, and flow of entropy. Since time and distance are frozen for local observers, these changes are not observed. Instead, the accelerating rate of expansion in the ethereal dimension forces the equivalent

reaction of gravity. This is the geometry and behavior of a nested physical dimension that resists expansion by the action of gravity.

Being trapped within the physical dimension, we cannot know the true volume V of the cosmic universe or the accumulated speed of light C in the ethereal realm, but the redshift from the most remote galaxy can be input into the Doppler equation to give the current rate of expansion and value of C relative to it. The universe is like a giant bubble floating in a fixed, infinite master dimension which freely permits accelerated expansion into it but at the price of restrained dimensions in the lower universe. As crazy as it might sound to fresh ears, I stake my life on all this being as rational and true as it is unknown to science. This is the foundation of a revolutionary and correct physics. It's my holy moly perpetual motion machine, the only one anyone ever has seen!

How do we know the Big Bang could not possibly have happened? Because examining units of G prove it must be constant. G isn’t a fudge factor. It has specific meaning. The units of G are cubic length divided by mass divided by seconds squared. They never tell you what G actually represents, and Newton appeared not to know himself unless the history books lie. Its purpose is to scale the apparent attraction due to gravity between m1 and m2 to the universal level. Length cubed could mean volume V of the universe, then divided by total mass M of the universe. Maybe I'm shooting from the hip, but right or wrong no hope is left for Einstein and the Big Bang. After a little thought, the units of G, (R^3/M) / s^2, can also be arranged as (R^2*R/M)/s^2. Let R stand for distance because it likely represents radius of the universe. R^2 cancels with the r^2 in the denominator of the gravitation law. Little r is the distance between the two objects of mass. Their ratio equals the radius of the universe to the radius of two objects. This leaves G as R/M/s^2 where M is the mass of the universe. R/s^2 is the universal acceleration of gravity based on radius R and mass M. So, the universe has the shape of a sphere with a specific mass M. As with R/r, Big M in the denominator scales the product of m1 and m2 to the universal level and at the same time cancels the mass unit on the right. The expression then reduces to F = ma, Newton’s textbook equation for force. This explains G.

Carefully verify for yourself that if either volume V or radius R are increased to allow for an expanding universe, then the universal force of gravity increases, exactly opposite of Einstein's well publicized reason for allowing G to be a variable. It was either the act of a fool or a sell out. G cannot vary in a way that permits the universe to expand. Even if Einstein were to invent his own G, which the media hints was the case, it wouldn’t make a difference. The only way the physical universe could be expanding is if mass were leaking out of it. Oh, wait, even that increases the value of G and blows the gig. Units of G describe a fixed geometric relationship on the universal level. Even if they could be varied, which they clearly cannot, the result would always defeat the purpose.

There never could have been a Big Bang. These scientists were all fools or frauds. It is the rate of cosmic expansion determined by mass M that defines geometrically exactly what the accelerating velocity of light c must be and the equal and opposite force of gravity on the physical level. This is easier to see with a diagram. It might help to visualize with recent YouTube videos under Foos Research. What is described for the first time are the laws of geometry for a three dimensional physical space enclosed by an expanding upper dimension resulting in the equal and opposite force of gravity. This is a new frontier in geometry, but in perfect agreement with Newton and the established behaviors of mass and length in gravitational potentials. The ethereal dimension is not only real, but the mother of ours. Matter expands into it such that recoil freezes expansion in the lower physical realm to create the equal and opposite retrograde motion we call gravity. The Doppler shift owed to recession from expansion in the ethereal dimension is matched by the force of gravity in the physical dimension. These are the properties of matter that create space and gravity. The world needs to chuck the Big Bang and get on board the Cosmic Expansion Model. Even if you don't respect me, I'm right. The world needs to know. The halls of cosmology need to be swept clean of the relativity hustle and replaced with the sound logic of the Cosmic Expansion Model. Proof of the Cosmic Expansion Model is appreciated as self evident. I swear by my life that it is the only correct model of the universe. It rightly explains the cause of gravity. It is not difficult for good mathematicians to see this clearly and carefully retrace the logic leading to the model. I don't know why nobody ever caught on. We've all been too brainwashed with Big Bang politics dramatized by fancy talkers in flashy suits.

G is analyzed in a separate chapter, so please read the entire book. Einstein, who must have known better, admitted that "he" made a mistake about making G a constant, even as it was never Einstein's G but Newton's. Well, I’ve not read Einstein’s explanation. Maybe his G was different, as if the universe changes its behavior to match the words of Einstein. At least that’s what the physicists think. But it won’t fly. G stands for real quantities on the scale of the total physical universe, not the enormously expanded cosmic universe we can’t see, but this side of the boundary between the cosmic and physical universe. It points to a fixed radius R of the universe, mass M of the universe, and the fixed speed of light matching the rate of expansion. After canceling units, it reveals the acceleration due to universal gravity, c/s, times mass, F=M*A in universal terms. G declares a fixed, geometric ratio of radius R to mass M of the universe. As such, G adjusts the expression to fit the scale of the inherent force of gravity for the physical universe as a whole. From the units, G would have to increase if any expansion or reduction in density of the universe took place. That would increase the universal force of gravitation and thwarts the possibility of any internal expansion of the physical universe or Big Bang. Yet this was the reason Einstein gave for abandoning a constant G. The idea was that this would allow internal expansion to occur so the physicists could have their dream of the Big Bang. Ironically, expansion in the cosmic universe should be nearly zero what it is now and yet it will increase again at the speed of light in the next second.

What do you suppose they had on Einstein? Nobody could be that dumb. The dimensions of G scream testimony to God, DIRTY DEAL, DIRTY DEAL, DIRTY DEAL, but a deaf and blind world has heard them not, not eve for over a hundred years. A deliberate scam? More likely nobody could rightly deduce the correct model so relativity and the Big Bang were invented to bamboozle the masses and keep those tax dollars rolling in. Why do they cling so desperately to this recessional velocity interpretation of intergalactic redshift? But then ask yourself, who could bear having the Big Bang splash century old egg all over the face of modern science?

The Cosmic Expansion Model defines the laws of the universe within an infinite, upper dimension into which space expands at an accelerating rate matching the speed of light. This produces the equal and opposite force of gravity in the enclosed physical dimension. It's surely good that we are not aware of our own expansion in the unseen upper dimension. This is not the mental fabrication of a crackpot or an Einstein trick, but the simple truth of physical existence. We live in a static universe nested within an infinite, fixed dimension crammed with energy but no mass into which our universe is expanding at the speed of light and accelerating rapidly. The Cosmic Expansion Model if true, and it is true, is the most important discovery in world history. The few able to think rightly and grasp the truth of it will see this for themselves. That's the purpose of this book. I challenge you to carefully validate the unerring logical steps to the Cosmic Model of the Universe for yourself, then waste no time in letting others know your verdict. I'm gambling that enough good mathematicians will give testimony to having seen the light and bring awareness of the Cosmic Expansion Model of the Universe to the world.