## QUANTUM MECHANICS FITS THE COSMIC EXPANSION MODEL

Flash back to our analogy of concentric rings of increasing size with distance from a source of gravitation. In a black hole, the bottom ring at the center would be a singularity according to physicists who observe from afar; but, of course, as we've established so very well, every ring would measure the same exact size for mathematicians sitting at the same gravitational potential as the ring in question or any other point equidistant from the center of the source of gravity. The idea of a stack of tubular rings is especially useful. At our natural scale, no difference is seen, but if we blow the rings up enough, the curved sides can match the amplitude of electromagnetic waves. We readily see from a distance that the size of the rings match the gravitational potential such that the rings are small at the bottom and big at the top with diameters that match the wavelength of the light beam. When the stack is observed from a fixed point somewhat distant horizontally, we see that size of the tires diminishes exponentially towards the bottom. The shape of the outside of the stack is like a wine glass with ripples because the force of gravity diminishes exponentially with distance from the Earth (square of the radius). The opposite half of the wine glass traces out the force of gravitation with distance r from the source.

The analogy gives emphasis that the diameter of the rings would exactly match the wavelength a given spectrum of light as it constricts or expands in a gravitational field. The wavelength increases as the photon accelerates away from the ground (red shift). The clock speeds up to the same degree, ensuring that the expanding meter stick remains a meter locally. That's all there really was to Einstein's relativity and should have never been in dispute. We can easily improve on the analogy, though. The beam of light in question is actually a photon, not exactly a particle but a localized packet of energy that is vibrating back and forth with its characteristic wavelength as it rockets away from Earth. Stop and ponder that the photon's path will actually be a spiral that starts out small, makes one revolution for every wavelength traveled during which it moves away from the Earth the same distance. Thus we have established a set of quantum units for length, time, and energy which holds throughout the universe. Now, I hope you understand the idea behind quantum mechanics a little better than you did.

So to make this stack of tires better represent the path of the photon, we need to replace the rings with an ever widening spiral staircase. The result is something like a fast spinning barbershop pole except the bottom is much smaller than the top like a glass of wine and the red portion the shape of a widening cylinder. The photon would look like a spiraling torpedo of semisolid gas or liquid. We also know that each torpedo orbit will generate electric and magnetic pulses at right angles to each other. If we could slow the photon down or start with a longer wavelength, we could use it for radio. In the reverse, we go to X rays.

Cosmic expansion is how space is created. It trades observable expansion into the force of gravity in our physical dimension, makes the hands on a clock turn, increases the amount of disorder in the universe. Cosmic expansion is the so called dark energy that powers the universe at all levels. The speed of light by natural definition must coincide with the rate of cosmic expansion at any given point. The two portals where you began and will eventually end exist at every point in the universe simultaneously between. You began at the singularity where time was zero and will end when mass and time accelerate into infinity. To prove this, consider that our dimension is separate from the ether, but assume that the ether transmits light waves as it does. Since the ether has no relative direction in our dimension, it travels at constant speed in all directions. This was the result of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. This wasn't really fair though, was it? The path of the two beams was horizontal for both, and the cosmic expansion model tells us that this must be so because throughout a constant gravitational potential the speed of light must be constant. Yet Einstein and his followers themselves established that light accelerates when escaping a gravitational field as observed by a fixed observer. This is because the constancy of light speed is indeed relative to the ether which transmits it. There should be no need to remind ourselves that every point in our space is expanding outwards at different rates depending on gravitational gradients. This accelerating expansion is what carries the accelerating light beam away from the Earth. Thus, it was always true that the ether is the medium through which light is transmitted and indeed it does vary depending our motion relative to it. Light accelerates away from the Earth at a rate exactly equal to the rate of cosmic expansion determined by the local gravitational gradient. Light travels in all and any directions at the same locally measurable speed isn't because of Einstein's relativity, but because the ether that carries it isn't in this dimension. Under the influence of gravity, we travel relative to the ether in the upper dimension. We can't physically detect the ether or measure our rate of expansion except that unlike mass, electromagnetic waves travel with or against the direction of greatest expansion and as a result must accelerate with a red shift when leaving a planet or galaxy and decelerate with a blue shift when going towards it. Think about it hard enough and the light will dawn. Light accelerates away from Earth not because it's following the contour of space time, but because it travels with the direction of cosmic expansion away from the bodies of mass that remain fixed in the physical dimension. The physicists cannot see it, but the mathematicians see it clearly...

Incidental to each wavelength along the photon's path are magnetic and electric waves that ripple through space generated at right angles to each other. These also travel at the speed of light. Remember, the diameter of each hoop is a quantum length, the time for the pulse to go up one rung is the quantum time, and the photon is a packet of quantum energy for that frequency. We can never see the pulse from bottom to top of each rung because that's the smallest unit of time. The remote observer sees a continuous spectrum of color from the ground all the way to the stars. If photons are continually coming through the pipeline we see a continuous beam of a certain spectrum of light. It's convenient to use the same frequency as used to define the meter, the iodine-stabilized Helium-Neon laser as described here https://paleontology.fandom.com/wiki/Meter/. The method was used to improve accuracy of the speed of light (for that frequency): https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/meter. Other frequencies vary slightly in their speed of travel.

You may have asked which direction the spiral path goes. Is it clockwise or counter clockwise. To answer that question, examine the source of the photon. We see that an electron is excited in its orbit from the absorption of heat and pushed into a higher energy shell. The difference in energies is a quantum, so when the electron releases its energy as a photon it falls back to the lower orbit. Electrons themselves have either a positive or a negative spin. This is probably why spirals are both clockwise and counter clockwise. Physicists will make fun of that because the electron spin isn't regarded as a literal physical spin; however, there isn't a better explanation for why some photons should leave the earth in equal numbers of right and left hand spirals if we assume they must. It may be that light is more concentrated in a laser because the photons are all spinning in the same direction.

On matters involving particle physics I am woefully ignorant, so it may ultimately be up to the mathematicians to provide more clarity to the mass of bosons and quarks dredged up by physicists. However ignorant of particle physics and quantum mechanics, I'm well within reason to establish one wavelength as one rung representing both quantum distance and quantum time. For that reason it isn't possible to know the position of a pulse over the course of one revolution or rung. It could be at the beginning or end or both at the same time, just as the position of the electron in its orbit isn't knowable. To hazard a guess this is these are the qubits or quantum bits physicists are talking about. I don't well understand the point of quantum computers. I suppose that in binary you get only 256 combinations out of eight bits (two to the power of eight), while with qubits you get a tremendously greater combination of eight things taken more than two at a time (four to the power of eight equals 65,536). It's a mystery to me how they would program such a contraption. I'm very much out of my league with quantum or particle physics, I only make the point that the quantum world is a good fit to the cosmic expansion model while being a terrible fit to the standard model.

The analogy gives emphasis that the diameter of the rings would exactly match the wavelength a given spectrum of light as it constricts or expands in a gravitational field. The wavelength increases as the photon accelerates away from the ground (red shift). The clock speeds up to the same degree, ensuring that the expanding meter stick remains a meter locally. That's all there really was to Einstein's relativity and should have never been in dispute. We can easily improve on the analogy, though. The beam of light in question is actually a photon, not exactly a particle but a localized packet of energy that is vibrating back and forth with its characteristic wavelength as it rockets away from Earth. Stop and ponder that the photon's path will actually be a spiral that starts out small, makes one revolution for every wavelength traveled during which it moves away from the Earth the same distance. Thus we have established a set of quantum units for length, time, and energy which holds throughout the universe. Now, I hope you understand the idea behind quantum mechanics a little better than you did.

So to make this stack of tires better represent the path of the photon, we need to replace the rings with an ever widening spiral staircase. The result is something like a fast spinning barbershop pole except the bottom is much smaller than the top like a glass of wine and the red portion the shape of a widening cylinder. The photon would look like a spiraling torpedo of semisolid gas or liquid. We also know that each torpedo orbit will generate electric and magnetic pulses at right angles to each other. If we could slow the photon down or start with a longer wavelength, we could use it for radio. In the reverse, we go to X rays.

Cosmic expansion is how space is created. It trades observable expansion into the force of gravity in our physical dimension, makes the hands on a clock turn, increases the amount of disorder in the universe. Cosmic expansion is the so called dark energy that powers the universe at all levels. The speed of light by natural definition must coincide with the rate of cosmic expansion at any given point. The two portals where you began and will eventually end exist at every point in the universe simultaneously between. You began at the singularity where time was zero and will end when mass and time accelerate into infinity. To prove this, consider that our dimension is separate from the ether, but assume that the ether transmits light waves as it does. Since the ether has no relative direction in our dimension, it travels at constant speed in all directions. This was the result of the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. This wasn't really fair though, was it? The path of the two beams was horizontal for both, and the cosmic expansion model tells us that this must be so because throughout a constant gravitational potential the speed of light must be constant. Yet Einstein and his followers themselves established that light accelerates when escaping a gravitational field as observed by a fixed observer. This is because the constancy of light speed is indeed relative to the ether which transmits it. There should be no need to remind ourselves that every point in our space is expanding outwards at different rates depending on gravitational gradients. This accelerating expansion is what carries the accelerating light beam away from the Earth. Thus, it was always true that the ether is the medium through which light is transmitted and indeed it does vary depending our motion relative to it. Light accelerates away from the Earth at a rate exactly equal to the rate of cosmic expansion determined by the local gravitational gradient. Light travels in all and any directions at the same locally measurable speed isn't because of Einstein's relativity, but because the ether that carries it isn't in this dimension. Under the influence of gravity, we travel relative to the ether in the upper dimension. We can't physically detect the ether or measure our rate of expansion except that unlike mass, electromagnetic waves travel with or against the direction of greatest expansion and as a result must accelerate with a red shift when leaving a planet or galaxy and decelerate with a blue shift when going towards it. Think about it hard enough and the light will dawn. Light accelerates away from Earth not because it's following the contour of space time, but because it travels with the direction of cosmic expansion away from the bodies of mass that remain fixed in the physical dimension. The physicists cannot see it, but the mathematicians see it clearly...

Incidental to each wavelength along the photon's path are magnetic and electric waves that ripple through space generated at right angles to each other. These also travel at the speed of light. Remember, the diameter of each hoop is a quantum length, the time for the pulse to go up one rung is the quantum time, and the photon is a packet of quantum energy for that frequency. We can never see the pulse from bottom to top of each rung because that's the smallest unit of time. The remote observer sees a continuous spectrum of color from the ground all the way to the stars. If photons are continually coming through the pipeline we see a continuous beam of a certain spectrum of light. It's convenient to use the same frequency as used to define the meter, the iodine-stabilized Helium-Neon laser as described here https://paleontology.fandom.com/wiki/Meter/. The method was used to improve accuracy of the speed of light (for that frequency): https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/meter. Other frequencies vary slightly in their speed of travel.

You may have asked which direction the spiral path goes. Is it clockwise or counter clockwise. To answer that question, examine the source of the photon. We see that an electron is excited in its orbit from the absorption of heat and pushed into a higher energy shell. The difference in energies is a quantum, so when the electron releases its energy as a photon it falls back to the lower orbit. Electrons themselves have either a positive or a negative spin. This is probably why spirals are both clockwise and counter clockwise. Physicists will make fun of that because the electron spin isn't regarded as a literal physical spin; however, there isn't a better explanation for why some photons should leave the earth in equal numbers of right and left hand spirals if we assume they must. It may be that light is more concentrated in a laser because the photons are all spinning in the same direction.

On matters involving particle physics I am woefully ignorant, so it may ultimately be up to the mathematicians to provide more clarity to the mass of bosons and quarks dredged up by physicists. However ignorant of particle physics and quantum mechanics, I'm well within reason to establish one wavelength as one rung representing both quantum distance and quantum time. For that reason it isn't possible to know the position of a pulse over the course of one revolution or rung. It could be at the beginning or end or both at the same time, just as the position of the electron in its orbit isn't knowable. To hazard a guess this is these are the qubits or quantum bits physicists are talking about. I don't well understand the point of quantum computers. I suppose that in binary you get only 256 combinations out of eight bits (two to the power of eight), while with qubits you get a tremendously greater combination of eight things taken more than two at a time (four to the power of eight equals 65,536). It's a mystery to me how they would program such a contraption. I'm very much out of my league with quantum or particle physics, I only make the point that the quantum world is a good fit to the cosmic expansion model while being a terrible fit to the standard model.